Formula One engines may be no more than 2.4 litres in
capacity. They must have 8 cylinders in a 90-degree formation, with two
inlet and two exhaust valves per cylinder. They must be normally
aspirated, weigh at least 95 kilograms and be rev-limited to 18,000rpm.
only other permitted power source is a Kinetic Energy Recovery System
(KERS), which takes waste energy generated under braking and turns it
into additional power. This is then made available to the driver in
fixed quantities per lap via a steering wheel-mounted boost button.
superchargers and devices designed to pre-cool air before it enters the
engine's cylinders are not allowed. Nor is the injection of any
substance into the cylinders other than air and fuel. Variable-geometry
inlet and exhaust systems are also forbidden, as is variable valve
timing. Each cylinder may have just one fuel injector and ignition must
be by a single spark plug.
The materials used in the manufacture
of the engine and its components are strictly controlled by the
regulations. The crankcase and cylinder block must be made of cast or
wrought aluminium alloys - the use of composite materials is not
allowed. The crankshaft and camshafts must be made from an iron-based
alloy, pistons from an aluminium alloy and valves from alloys based on
iron, nickel, cobalt or titanium.
Formula One cars do not have
their own, onboard starting systems. Separate starting devices may be
used to start engines in the pits and on the grid. If the engine is
fitted with an anti-stall device, this must be set to cut the engine
within ten seconds in the event of an accident.